Monday, July 27, 2020

Introducing the Class of 2013 Christy 13

Introducing the Class of 2013 Christy 13 Im frequently asked about the students that are admitted to MIT. Who are they? What is their story? Beginning today, Im going to be posting a series of articles about incoming MIT students. These articles mostly come from local newspapers. The stories are pretty inspirational, and the students are going to be great members of the MIT community. A few notes on these articles: The students profiled so far, I have 13 student-articles are not demographically representative of MIT. Some groups, like athletes, seem somewhat overrepresented, while other groups, like Californians (California, of course, is our largest represented state in the class), are very underrepresented. For a full look at the demographics of the Class of 2013, see the Freshman Class Profile (freshly updated!). A number of the journalists focus on the financial aid packages of the students as if they are merit scholarships. Please remember that at MIT, we only award need-based scholarships, and we meet the full financial need of every student. The 13 articles I have compiled come from my Google and Yahoo news feeds. If theres an article about you or a friend that youd like to see here, let me know! The profiled students to date: Christy Swartz 13 Terence Dalbert 13 Sean Fannin 13 Jonte Craighead 13 Chandler and Taylor Burfield 13 Trevor Zinser 13 Henrique de Oliveira Pinto Pondv © 13 Chika Ugboh 13 Qinxuan Pan 13 Scott Landers 13 Cory Ward 13 Edner Paul 13 Jeremy Dalcin 13 Bee Vang 13 The Class of 2009: Science whiz knows just where she belongs: MIT By Eric Stevick, Herald Writer Sunday, June 7, 2009 Stanwood High School graduating senior Christy Swartz. [Michael OLeary / The Herald] STANWOOD Christy Swartz could appreciate the symbolism. On March 14, at 1:59 p.m., the Stanwood High School senior received an e-mail from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology letting her know she had been accepted to the university renowned for its math and science. The month, day and time the e-mail was sent translate to 3.14159, better known as pi, the mathematical symbol for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. I loved that, said Christy, 17, who sees math and science everywhere, be it the sound waves from the harp she plays or the dimensions and composition of a homemade trombone she built for a science project. People see confusion between the arts and science, she said. I see them as interrelated. Its just a matter of seeing the connection. During her freshman year at Stanwood High, Christy set her sights on MIT after reading a story in Scientific American magazine about students with a passion for math and problem-solving. I thought, Oh my gosh, I belong with those people. It became an obsession. It always has been my dream. Christy, one of four valedictorians at Stanwood High, is considering studying physics and electrical engineering at MIT, but shes already had her hands in meaningful science. She and classmates Jimmy Besancon and Derek Britain recently won $10,000 in a statewide technology competition at Washington State University based on their work converting tidal energy from Saratoga Passage into usable power that charges a 12-volt battery. Half their winnings go to their school, but they get to split $5,000. They spent 250 hours on their project. To Christy, the pursuit of math and science and taking the toughest classes her school offers is worth it. If you love something, its not hard, she said. Its just fun and challenging.

Sunday, June 28, 2020

Identity Crisis in a Racist World - Free Essay Example

Identity Crisis in a Racist World as reflected by Toni Morrison in The Bluest Eye Abstract The present paper is an attempt to study the thematic concerns of the novel The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison. In her first novel The Bluest Eye (1970), Toni Morrison has shown thrown light on the black consciousness of the 1960s that was characterized by identity crisis resultant of struggle for personal and racial identity. The novel revolves around the tragic tale of a young black girl who has a staunch desire for a pair of blue eyes because she considers by having blue eyes she will become beautiful and worthy. Morrison brings forth the disastrous effects of inter race prejudice upon innocent black girls who are left traumatized bereft of any individuality. Introduction Toni Morrison was passionately inclined to writing endowed with a new insight into black history, the great suffering and trauma suffered by her race. She wanted her novels to serve the purpose of a reformer in the right sense of the term. She felt the oppression that the black people have been subjected to, is something highly disturbing in nature that the blacks consider it is the lack of beauty aspects in them which is the cause of their disgrace and humiliation. The blacks wishing to have beauty aspects like blue eyes, blond hair and white skin on par with the whites is the central idea in the novel. It is a profoundly sensitive issue to the blacks and it is a tragic condition for them in a racist social order. The novel centers on racism; black stands for something dark, evil, and bad while white stands for purity, virtue, hope and innocence. Morrison brings into focus that racism tarnishes the self image of the black girls and leaves adverse psychological effects in their psyche. The protagonist of the novel The Bluest Eye, Pecola Breedlove belongs to a poor black family and yearns for blue eyes like white children so that there would be mutual reciprocation of her feelings, and attitude on par with the whites. She wants to be loved and accepted by both the whites and blacks. She feels that absence of complexion and blue eyes is the main reason for poor personality. She is forced to long for blue eyes like those of white children and surrounded by cultural message that she is ugly by definition; she can achieve peace only by retreating into schizophrenia. The agony and pain of Pecola is all the more worse when her own father outraged her modesty. She is made to live a life of fetters for no fault of her own. The people around her view her as a pitiable person reduced to nothing. Her desire is something which cannot be fulfilled. The world that Pecola lives in is one which reduces persons to mere objects. Toni Morrison exposes the radical effects of racism on the black girls. The pitiable plight of Pecola is the outcome of fierce racism and interracial conflicts of myths. The failure of Pecola is not only because of her hopeless desire for blue eyes but it is also because of her lack of self confidence. She has a deep rooted feeling that she is ugly and the intensity of feeling is such that she finds it difficult to uproot it even from her sub conscious mind. When such a feeling is accompanied by external humiliation it is her inferior complex that gets aggravated. Her mother calls her ugly since her childhood days and her father hates her because she is ugly. Her parents fail to give Pecola the necessary love and affection. Pecolas struggle for identity is defined by her everlasting desire to be loved. Her family and community made it impossible for her to be ever sanely content. Cholly Breedlove, the father and eventually the rapist of Pecola is a bastard. He was born to an unwed mother, his father ran away the day of his birth and his mother abandoned him three days later. This horrible beginning reflects his every day views and actions. After the death of his legal guardian (his aunt), Cholly decides that as an inner mission he needs to find his father to find himself. To understand who he is, he has to look into his past; a long search ends in an extremely disappointing and crushing experience. Chollys private life is still painful. Being a black victim he is forced to have sex with two white police officers. Forcing him to have sex they just chuckled from behind. These episodes left a huge impact on him that eventually caused him to do something that would not have happened had he had proper guidance in those areas. Chollys family and his community contributed in making the man he became and thus his eventual downfall. Almost all characters in The Bluest Eye are after something. Having lost themselves they look in for their identity. Pecola yearns for blue eyes. At the end of the novel she believes that she has those eyes. She thinks that people treat her funny because of her blue eyes and she has learned to accept that happily. She yearned for the acceptance and love of society seen through her eyes. No matter if that acceptance and love were there or not, she thought it was and therefore was able to survive. Pecolas search for her identity ends in her insanity. Although she is not accepted by society for reasons she does not understand, she puts exclusion from society into terms she can comprehend. Society influences her identity and moulds her into what she becomes by not giving her the guidance and approval she needs. In the same way Cholly found himself separated from the community. He does an act of inhumanity and he could not live with the realization of the monster he had become and he disappeared. As a man he does not know who he is. W. E. Du Bois in his book, The Souls of Black Folk gauges the deleterious impact of racism on cultural self consciousness and identity. The term, ?double consciousness, refers to two distinct realitiesa psychological conflict between opposing cultural world views and debilitating resolution in which extremely derived and distorted perceptions of the self constitute a single, but alienated self- consciousness. Du Bois further notes that it is a peculiar sensation, this double consciousness, this sense of always looking at ones self through the eyes of others. The Bluest Eye inspired a climate of revolution and evolving black consciousness of the sixties, a period characterized by an almost evangelical struggle for personal and racial identity. Morrison chooses the obsession of the blacks with an American standard of beauty that seems both inescapable and destructive. The novelist states that that concept of physical beauty as a virtue is one of the dumbest, most pernicious and destructive ideas of the western world.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Gregorian Calendar - Overview and History

In the year 1572, Ugo Boncompagni became Pope Gregory XIII and there was a crisis of the calendar - one of Christianitys most important dates was falling behind with respect to the seasons. Easter, which is based on the date of the vernal equinox (the first day of Spring), was being celebrated too early in the month of March. The cause of this calendrical confusion was the over 1,600 year-old Julian calendar, established by Julius Caesar in the year 46 BCE. Julius Caesar took control over the chaotic Roman calendar, which was being exploited by politicians and others with the haphazard addition of days or months. It was a calendar horribly out-of-synch with the seasons of the earth, which are the result of the rotation of the earth around the sun. Caesar developed a new calendar of 364 1/4 days, closely approximating the length of the tropical year (the time it takes the earth to go around the sun from the beginning of spring to the beginning of spring). Caesars calendar was normally 365 days long but included an extra day (a leap day) every four years to account for the extra one-quarter of a day. The intercalary (inserted into the calendar) day was added prior to February 25 each year. Unfortunately, while Caesars calendar was almost accurate, it wasnt quite accurate enough because the tropical year is not 365 days and 6 hours (365.25 days), but is approximately 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes, and 46 seconds (365.242199 days). Therefore, the calendar of Julius Caesar was 11 minutes and 14 seconds too slow. This added up to be a full day off every 128 years. While it took from 46 BCE to 8 CE to get Caesars calendar functioning properly (initially leap years were being celebrated every three years instead of every four), by the time of Pope Gregory XIII the one day every 128 years added up to a full ten days of error in the calendar. (Purely by luck did the Julian calendar happen to celebrate leap years on years divisible by four - during Caesars time, the numbered years of today didnt exist). A serious change needed to take place and Pope Gregory XIII decided to repair the calendar. Gregory was aided by astronomers in developing a calendar that would be more accurate than the Julian calendar. The solution they developed was almost perfect. Continue on Page Two. The new Gregorian calendar would continue to be comprised of 365 days with an intercalary added every four years (moved to after February 28 to make things easier) but there would be no leap year in years ending in 00 unless those years were divisible by 400. Therefore, the years 1700, 1800, 1900, and 2100 would not be a leap year but the years 1600 and 2000 would. This change was so accurate that today, scientists need only add leap seconds every few years to the clock in order to keep the calendar matching the tropical year. Pope Gregory XIII issued a papal bull, Inter Gravissimus on February 24, 1582 that established the Gregorian calendar as the new and official calendar of the Catholic world. Since the Julian calendar had fallen ten days behind over the centuries, Pope Gregory XIII designated that October 4, 1582 would be officially followed by October 15, 1582. The news of the calendar change was disseminated across Europe. Not only would the new calendar be utilized but ten days would be lost forever, the new year would now begin on January 1 instead of March 25, and there would be a new method of determining the date of Easter. Only a few countries were ready or willing to change to the new calendar in 1582. It was adopted that year in Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, and France. The Pope was forced to issue a reminder on November 7 to nations that they should change their calendars and many did not heed the call. Had the calendar change been promulgated a century earlier, more countries would have been under Catholic rule and would have heeded the Popes command. By 1582, Protestantism had spread across the continent and politics and religion were in disarray; additionally, the Eastern Orthodox Christian countries would not change for many years. Other countries later joined the fray over the following centuries. Roman Catholic Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands switched by 1584; Hungary changed in 1587; Denmark and Protestant Germany switched by 1704; Great Britain and its colonies changed in 1752; Sweden changed in 1753; Japan changed in 1873 as part of Meijis Westernization; Egypt changed in 1875; Albania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, and Turkey all changed between 1912 and 1917; the Soviet Union changed in 1919; Greece switched to the Gregorian calendar in 1928; and finally, China changed to the Gregorian calendar after their revolution of 1949! Change wasnt always easy, however. In Frankfurt as well as London, people rioted over the loss of days in their lives. With each change to the calendar around the world, laws established that people could not be taxed, paid, nor would interest accrue over the missing days. It was decreed that deadlines still had to take place in the correct number of natural days following the transition. In Great Britain, Parliament legislated the change to the Gregorian calendar (by this time simply called the New Style calendar) in 1751 after two unsuccessful attempts at change in 1645 and 1699. They decreed that September 2, 1752 would be followed by September 14, 1752. Britain needed to add eleven days instead of ten because by the time Britain changed, the Julian calendar was eleven days off the Gregorian calendar and tropic year. This 1752 change also applied to the American colonies of Britain so the change was made in the pre-United States and pre-Canada at that time. Alaska didnt change calendars until 1867, when it transferred from a Russian territory to a part of the United States. In the era after the change, dates were written with O.S. (Old Style) or N.S. (New Style) following the day so people examining records could understand whether they were looking at a Julian date or a Gregorian date. While George Washington was born on February 11, 1731 (O.S.), his birthday became February 22, 1732 (N.S.) under the Gregorian calendar. The change in the year of his birth was due to the change of when the change of the new year was acknowledged. Recall that prior to the Gregorian calendar, March 25 was the new year but once the new calendar was implemented, it became January 1. Therefore, since Washington was born between January 1 and March 25, the year of his birth became one year later upon the switch to the Gregorian calendar. (Prior to the 14th century, the new year change took place on December 25.) Today, we rely on the Gregorian calendar to keep us almost perfectly in line with the rotation of the earth around the sun. Imagine the disruption to our daily lives if a new calendar change were required in this most modern era!

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Children Growing Up in a Violent family - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4161 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Type Argumentative essay Tags: Children Essay Domestic Violence Essay Family Essay Did you like this example? The effects of domestic violence on children and how they could be protected 2. Chapter 1 Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Children Growing Up in a Violent family" essay for you Create order 1.1 Introduction This thesis highlights the instances of domestic violence at home and its effects on children. The social, psychological, physical and emotional impact of domestic violence could be studied from a broad perspective although domestic violence has a significant effect on children and especially in their psychological development and the way they react to their social world at a later stage of life. The thesis discusses how children could be protected from domestic violence and what are the measures that the government or social organizations could take to control or stop domestic violence. The description of domestic violence in all dimensions is followed by an analysis of the different types of domestic violence and who are the people affected by domestic violence or how domestic violence could have an impact on the children. The long term and short term influences of domestic violence are studied after a careful analysis of research papers. 3. Chapter 2 2.1 Background Domestic violence is threatening behavior or some sort of violence or abuse between adults who are or were in relationships as also violence between family members and could affect anyone irrespective of gender, age, ethnicity or sexuality. Domestic violence could be psychological or physical, sexual or emotional or even financial. It could range from forced marriage and genital mutilation to physical abuse and assault. Domestic violence usually takes place within intimate family type relationships and could form a pattern of coercive and controlling behavior in which one family member of partner tries to control the other family members or partner. Domestic violence can mean a range of behaviors and some may not be typically violent and could fall under domestic abuse. Research has indicated that one in four women face domestic violence in their lifetime and usually happens when the abuser has a desire for power and control over their partner. Domestic violence can be life threateni ng and could be harmful to the lives of men and women if their partners are engaged in repetitive violence. Domestic violence is mainly carried out by men and experienced by women although it could be the other way round and there could be repeated physical or sexual assaults and this could result in injury or death. It has been projected that men could be violent towards their partners or might face violence although women get violent as an attempt towards self defence as they try to move out of controlling behavior. Domestic violence has a direct adverse effect on the children in a family and more than 75% children are considered at risk when they have abusive parents in their family. Children are also sometimes abused by the family member. Domestic violence exists within all kinds of relationships and in some cases older children could get violent or abusive towards their parents and so the equation between the parent and child could be abusive both ways and in either case there are possibilities of domestic violence. Some common factors have been identified in defining the experiences of abusive relationships and identifying these factors could help in preventing the abuse. Domestic violence could take many forms of destructive criticism and verbal abuse as in threatening, mocking, abusing and name calling. Abusers also use pressure tactics and could give threats or could break trust by being in other relationships or withhold information, show disrespect or could subject their victim to isolation and harassment. Physical and sexual violence are the usual forms of domestic violence although verbal attacks are most common. Domestic violence could affect anyone regardless of age, gender or social background or ethnicity and it could happen at any stage of a relationship and incidents of domestic violence could become increasingly severe over time. Domestic abuse is a result of the desire for power or control and could directly cause or be caused by individual experiences. The responses of society are contributory factors in domestic violence although men can easily get away with it. Domestic violence would have direct impact on children and there could be both long term and short term impact on children. Developmental perspectives could consider direct or indirect abuse effects on infants and adolescents, school age children and teenagers. The next part of the review highlights domestic violence and its impact on children as noted in literature review and research studies. The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children 2.2 Developmental Perspective 2.3 Short and Long term impact 2.4 Impact of intimate partner abuse on Children The developmental perspectives of domestic violence could be studied by measuring the impact of violence on children, infants, toddlers, adolescents and teenagers and would also suggest how the impact differs in each case. The short and long term impact of domestic violence could also be analyzed and in case of children the long term effects are usually mental illness or psychological problems, chronic health problems and in some cases poverty and homelessness. Developmental Perspectives Kennedy et al (2010) studied the clinical and adaptive features of juvenile offenders who were violent towards their parents and compared this with children who had no history of violence against their parents and the groups were compared on mental health issues, relation ship findings and intellectual abilities. Children who face domestic abuse are more likely to show gang behaviors and could have trouble relating to parents and other members. There were no significant differences noted in emotional symptoms and in personal adjustments. In the context of domestic violence, Lapierre (2010) studied mothering and womens experience of mothering and how this was related to domestic violence. There seems to be a lack of research on womens experiences in mothering in the context of domestic violence and this study highlights the difficulties that abused women face during mothering. The author argued that motherhood itself could pose a challenge as difficulties of interaction arise within broader situations. Women have at the same time increased responsibilities to motherhood and loss of control over their children and therefore this would be a major challenge. Mothers are required to be vocal about their concerns as intimate partner violence faced by mothers would affect not just them but also the well being of their children ho may be exposed to the violence and its after effects (Rhodes et al, 2010). In a study with 39 adult women, mothers raised concerns on the negative effects of partner violence on their children. In discussions on the barriers to prevent violence and abuse by partners, the victims expressed their conflicts and how children could facilitate and inhibit leaving of an abusive relationship as the mothers could worry that children will be adversely affected if they remain in a violent family but could also be affected if they stay away from a family environment. This suggests that victims with children were always very conflicted as children could both facilitate and inhibit leaving relationships that are abusive. Mothers are thus in conflict as to whether they should spare their children from harmful effects of violence and leave or whether they should spare their children from any instability caused by separation or divorce. The mothers also suggested that fear of involvement of child protection services prevented them from seeking help with social service agencies. Social service agencies will have to understand the conflicts faced by mothers and should be able to help them. There could be individual differences and personality patterns that would suggest why some children show unstable behavior when exposed to domestic violence and why some other children are more resilient (Howell, et al 2010). Resilience was characterised by emotional regulation and prosocial skills, and was studied by a research group who observed mothers and their 4 to 6 year old children. The study suggested that better parenting, fewer maternal mental health problems and less severe exposure to violence could predict better emotional regulation and prosocial skills and this was negatively correlated with maladaptive child behaviors. Gardner noted the experience of children who live in families affected by domestic violence and collected information on children who continued to remain in parental home after child maltreatment (Gardner et al, 2009). There is a high policy oriented interest in domestic violence and is an important aspect of child mal treatment concerns. There are how ever several challenges inherent in the interaction of domestic violence and this could affect outcomes of how children are treated by family members and social service agencies. Short Term and Long Term consequences of domestic violence Domestic violence now has greater recognition in public policies in the United Kingdom. Devaney (2009) suggests that more than 1 million children may have been exposed to domestic violence that are perpetrated by adults family members. This sort of violence could have short term and long term consequences and could affect the social and emotional adjustment of the children. As male perpetrators of domestic violence are not held to account, the children will have to be given special care and protection by social services. It is however suggested that it is the women s responsibility to protect their child from any harm and this is done when they either leave or force their partner to leave. Devaney suggests that the women of the household are held responsible for having to protect their children and typically they are expected to leave or force their partners to leave and women are also responsible for making men realize their responsibilities as father and also by making them account able for their behavior. External environment, the causes and immediate correlates of psychological problems in children are considered although Carrell and Hoekstra (2010) suggested that measuring data could have its methodological limitations. However the authors tried to correlate childrens school records with cases of domestic violence to estimate the negative effects of domestic abuse. The results from the study indicated that children from troubled families could have decreasing grades and along with falling grades there is a possibility of misbehavior in the classroom. Achievement scores are however affected by family differences so domestic violence could not be the only factor for determining grades but the family environment is also important. In many cases when women face domestic violence at home they are asked to stay with their husbands for the children. Although Emery (2009) suggests that the concept of marriage could benefit men, women and children. The relationship between marital stability, husband violence, and childrens behavior problems was studied and the married women who reported husband violence also indicated child behavioural problems although this negative behavior reduced when violence was controlled. Witnessing, participating or being subject to domestic violence would all have negative consequence and especially adverse consequences for children. There are socio demographic correlates of children who witness domestic violence and this could have an association with mental disorders both as children and as adults (Meltzer et al, 2009). The traumatic effects of experiencing domestic violence were found to be related to biographic, socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics and the report stated that at least 4% of children are regularly subject to domestic abuse. The factors hat could cause greater likelihood of domestic violence would be mixed ethnicity, physical disorder, several children in family, divorced parents, living in rented accommodation, poor neighbourhoods, the mothers emotional state and family dysfunction. A greater likelihood of the child witnessing domestic violence has been associated with conduct disorder although this was not associated with emotiona l disorders and there has been an association of domestic violence and emotional disorders so that with witnessing of domestic violence social workers and policy makers could identify the needs of the children who witness domestic violence. Impact of Domestic Violence on Children Young people caught in negative family experiences could be adversely affected by gap in knowledge of issues related to domestic abuse (Templeton et al 2009). Young people sometimes create the circumstances they live in and in the study by Templeton 8 young people were interviewed from five families (Templeton et al 2009). It has been suggested that research in which the opinion of young people are taken directly would be needed and in this case data from five families helped understand the lives of young people who lived with parental alcohol misuse and violence. Links have been found between parental drinking and domestic abuse with verbal aggression and physical violence. The young people noted a range of strategies in which they tried to cope with their home environments and one of the ways they received support was from friends, family and other professionals. The practice and policy responses for children living in family environments will have to be changed significantly. It has been suggested that intimate partner violence is not just a distinct and unitary phenomenon and could be differentiated according to partner dynamics, context and consequences and the four patterns of violence described are coercive controlling violence, violent resistance, situational couple violence and separated instigated violence (Kelly et al, 2008). Gender symmetry and asymmetry in intimate partner violence could be studied although there would be methodological limitations. Differentiation in the different types of domestic violence would be possible with procedures as explained in family, criminal courts with characteristics of different types of partner violence. Parenting plans tend to ensure outcomes for children and parent child relationships. Spilsbury et al (2008) discussed adjustment problems in community program samples with the school children being exposed to domestic violence. Children with internalizing and externalizing problems are the majority in domesti c violence cases although children could also have externalizing problem without internalizing problem. However there are a small group of children with internalizing problems only. The demographic and violence characteristics showed that profiles of domestic violence and children affected by it could differ by child gender, mothers education, childrens lifetime exposure to violence and contacts with community programs (Spilsbury et al, 2008). When children are exposed to domestic violence the focus becomes child neglect according to jurisdictions and DAmbrosio (2008) suggests that not all domestic violence is the same and not all families are affected with domestic violence issues. The several factors of domestic violence could be the frequency and intensity of violence, the frequency and intensity of childs exposure to violence, the family members unique experiences and characteristics. The parents who participate in counselling services help in the promotion of health and safety of their children and also support removal of children from any exposure to domestic violence. Child protection agencies examines domestic violence and also helps in mitigating the effects of childs exposure to domestic violence and in some cases could provide an opinion for or against removal of children from homes exposed to domestic violence. In advanced welfare states, the abuse of mothers by their adolescent male children has been found to be prevalent (Hunter et al, 2010). However as Hunter el al claim, mother to child abuse remains a very under researched form of family and domestic violence and not much is studied about child to parent violence and usually it is the other way round. There are issues of stigma or shame when children are violent with their parents and studies on this usually focus on the interventions that could deal with anti social behavior and adolescent violence towards mothers is a prevalent issue. This brings in the different disciplines of youth justice, child welfare and domestic violence into focus and the behavior of children and young people towards their mother could highlight issues of responsibility. However there is also a failure of service providers to respond to such destructive forms of intimate interpersonal violence. In another study that showed resilience among children who were exposed to domestic violence, mother-child dyads were examined when the children were 2-4 years of age. The study suggested that the young children who were exposed to domestic violence were more likely than the other group who were not exposed to domestic violence to show symptoms of internalizing and externalizing problems (Martinez-Torteya, 2009). However among the children who were exposed to domestic violence, 54% showed positive adaptation and non depressed mothers and thus greater resilience when compared with their non resilient counterparts. Domestic violence on a prolonged basis was associated with maternal depression, difficult child temperament and internalizing or externalizing symptoms. Heterogeneous outcomes among children exposed to domestic violence would involve influence on childrens adaptation. The perspectives of individuals and their relationships with each other and their lives and identity have been examined by Castelino (2009) and the focus was on family violence intervention programs. The study was on mens behavior change as they worked closely with their partners or children for their own safety. Within this organizational context, the childrens experiences at home with domestic violence have not been explored and although there is a framework for engaging in therapeutic work, the context of family violence tends to highlight work exploring safety and well being along with the complexity of family environment. The childrens experiences in domestic violence situations have been considered as significantly important. Berrick (2009) has argued that child welfare in the US is in a state of crisis and intense family problems such as drug addiction, domestic violence and criminal behavior bring greater problems to child behavior. When children are however removed from thei r homes they could be in a state of impermanence or transience without being in a stable family. Childrens well being and health should not be compromised in extended family relationships and the governments role is important in defining the vulnerability of childrens lives. Children are prevented from ill-treating their parents and this is done by placing them with carers also as Berrick argues these carers may not meet the qualifications for providing adequate care. However the primary mission of children would be an emphasis on protecting children who have been harmed by parents. The impact of exposure to domestic violence could be studied in terms of effects on health and well being of children and young people and Holt (2008) studied the impact of domestic violence across separate and interrelated domains as in domestic violence exposure and child abuse, impact on parental capacity, impact on child and adolescent development and exposure to additional adversities (Holt, 2008). The practices that would best suit childrens needs have also been highlighted. Holts study used databases through an 11 year framework and the results suggested that children and adolescents living with domestic violence could face increased risks of emotional and behavioural problems and could experience physical and sexual abuse with the presence of adverse conditions at home. The protective factors that could possibly reduce the impact of domestic violence on children would a strong and supportive relationship with one parent and in most cases it is the mother who provides support to children who may be facing emotional problems although in some cases the children are best removed from the home and given separate shelters by the social service providers. Children and young people are affected emotionally and behaviourally when they face domestic violence and the effects could be long term and would continue to ensure safety of the children. Children also construct their own social world and timely and individualized personalized responses have been considered as more appropriate. Timely and appropriate individually tailored responses to build resilience in the childs life could mean significant implications for responses. The relationship between domestic violence and different forms of child abuse show that exposure to domestic abuse could have different levels of impact on children and some children are more vulnerable than others and there could be potentially very harmful emotional, behavioural and physical effects in such children. The protective factors that could influence impact of exposure and outcomes for the child would suggest the need for a holistic child centred approach to service delivery and for this there is a need to focus on the assessment as well as the need to understand the individual childs experience and how it would be necessary to be responsive to the childs individual needs. Chang et al (2008) studied the association of partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment after using a sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years and the mothers were asked about the occurrence of neglectful or abusive behaviors towards their children or abusive behavior by their husbands and partners. Outcome measures for abuse could range from no abuse to mother as perpetrator, father as perpetrator, to both parents as perpetrators. The results indicated that children were at greater risk of maltreatment when parents psychologically abused each other although some factors which affected children were mothers level of education, child age and gender. When the father of the family abuses the mother, the impact on children is greater than when there is no psychological abuse. Partner psychological abuse is thus strongly related to maltreatment of the children and an increased risk of maltreatment was found with partner psychological abuse. Prevention of abuse is only poss ible with education about the serious impact of partner violence. Domestic violence and child welfare agencies should be aware of the link between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment (Chang et al, 2008) and work towards identifying and alleviation of these problems. How professionals protect children from domestic violence. 2.5 Different services or interventions that can protect children Several social work and social service agencies are responsible for taking care of children especially children who are abused and the different interventions that can protect children from domestic violence highlight not just the complexities of social work practice but also child behavior. In a study by Healey and Darlington (2009), it was suggested that participation of children and parents in child protection service could be complex and sensitive in social work practice as children and parents would have different issues in child protection cases and could voice varied concerns. In most cases participation would be separate and distinct. Child protection policies are closely associated with prevention of domestic abuse and promoting direct participation of children is a sensitive issue in social work practice. The child protection legislation policies promote ideals of service user participation although the principles and methods of achieving participatory practices in child protection will have to be elaborated and identified. However as Healey (2009) claim, the methods for participating in child protection services are not well developed. Child protection could refer to child and family welfare services and the prevention of child abuse, including through domesti c abuse and possible neglect and the social service agencies seem to have a responsibility in protection of children in all contexts . The services included in child protection are family support, domestic violence, statutory child protection, child and family advocacy services and a participatory practice in child protection. A qualitative analysis of interviews with child protection services show five domains of child protection work and core principles of participatory practice as given by Healey et al, (2009). The potential of social workers to shift from child protection to child welfare practice would show how social workers respond to child care problems (CCPs). Hayes and Spratt (2009) examined the potential of social workers from child protection to child welfare practice orientation and related child care problems. Social service trusts have usually responded to social policy goals to balance the protection of children and meeting welfare needs through reducing child protection investigations. Social workers tend to address perceived child protection risks and tend to balance social policing and supportive functions in practice as given in Every Child Matters (Chief Secretary to the Treasury, 2003) Ferguson (2009) highlighted the core experience of doing social work and the emotions and challenges of accessing children in social services. The methodology of child protection suggests that home visit is ignored and the emphasis is on policy and practice texts that happens in inter agency collaboration. The primary problem in contemporary child protection services for social workers would be the process of meaningfully engage with children. The practice through sociology and psychodynamic social work theory provides an understanding of social work experience. The concept of containment suggest ways in which practitioners could provide child protection for the benefit of children and other service users. 2.6 Barriers to services- and how children can overcome that. Services and interventions that can protect children include social work child protection services, and some of the barriers to service in child protection would be lack or shortage of resources and lack of understanding how child protection works. Barriers to service could also be about lack of cooperation and the children could overcome the barriers by actively cooperating with the social services and the parents and children should be able work together to cooperate in child protection issues. All risks will have to be identified and the children and parents and other relevant service users will have to ensure that social services agencies are able to provide the right kind of protection to the children. If the children have problems with custody or staying at a place with high levels of domestic violence, the social services may well take legal help to have them relocated to other shelters which would be safer for the children if the home environment is not safe enough. 4- Chapter 3 3.1 Limitation or findings- Critiquing the researchers about good and bad on their findings according to their aims. 5. Chapter 4 4.1 Discussion 4.2 Conclusion

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Sociology Of The Breakfast Club Essay - 1148 Words

Analytical Models Sociologists use many different theoretical perspectives to study the behavior of people in society. According to Macionis, sociology uses both a micro-level and macro-levels to look at both the big picture and the smallest details (p.17). There are three major analytical models in sociology that include functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interaction. Both functionalism and conflict theory are macro-level and symbolic interaction is micro-level (Macionis, P.19). Each one looks at society in a different way and can in this paper I will analyze the movie â€Å"The Breakfast Club† using these perspectives. Functionalism looks at society in aspects of how it contributes to the steadiness/cohesion of the whole society (Anderson, Taylor, Logio, P. 18). There are many institutions that are looked at that include the economic system, government, education, religion, health care, and family. All of which have different roles and perform different functions to ensure that society operates in a well-ordered manner. An example of this would be how family reproduces, takes care of children, exposes children to culture and heritage, supports other family members, and shares life experiences. Shared values and social stability are keys to this perspective. When this system breaks down it is because people’s needs are not being covered and shared values are deteriorating. When this occurs, it affects all parts of functionalism and the society must achieveShow MoreRelatedThe Breakfast Club Essay1071 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The Breakfast Club† is a film that is well-know to be a movie that explains stereotypes and societal standards. This classic movie exemplifies group dynamic in society. It does this by portraying distinct stereotypes, varying from the so-called â€Å"princess† all the way to the so-called â€Å"criminal.† At the start of the film, each member in the group is completely different and separate. They were definitely considered an out-group, which is a group of people that don’t identify with one another. ThroughoutRead MoreCross-Disciplinary Team Research Analysis Of A Community1177 Words   |  5 Pagescapacity-building project supported by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1 5Educating Illinois Progress Report New graduate programs at the Stevenson Center Collaborating with the School of Kinesiology and Recreation and the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, the Stevenson Center added two new degree programs to its Fellows programs. Applied Community and Economic Development Fellows and Peace Corps Fellows can now pursue master’s degrees in anthropology or kinesiology and recreationRead MoreIs Pop Culture Really Mean?979 Words   |  4 Pagesand several others. Although, if you ask an older generation, you will get different responses from Michael Jackson and leg warmers to The Breakfast Club and all the trends that made up the 1980s. It brings up a valid question, what does pop culture really mean? Pop culture can mean many different things depending on who is defining it. According to sociology professor Tim Delaney (n.d.), â€Å"It is generally recognized as the vernacular or people’s culture that predominates in a society at a point inRead MoreSample Resume : Cardiothoracic Surgery1556 Words   |  7 PagesImportant Subjects Math and science is critically important for medical doctors in general. Highly recommended classes may include: Anatomy, Geometry, Algebra 1 2, Calculus, Biology, General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Psychology, Physics, and Sociology (What Is the Most Important Subjects for Medical Student? Student Doctor Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2017.). Cardiothoracic surgeons are nearly one hundred percent science. They must know the functions and reactions of the heart, the lungsRead MoreInfluences Of Cultural Capital On Schooling And Learning Essay3925 Words   |  16 Pagesfrom the government in order to learn English and U.S. culture and develop his competency. Then, he brought his family along. His daughters in grades 6 and 3. His wife is a housewife (both in the U.S. and Korea). Tiger obtained a doctoral degree in Sociology in Korean university. He mentioned that he was the prior scholar able to use SPSS (A statistic program) in South Korea. Subsequently, he was appealed by many institutes in job markets. I did not have a change to ask about his parent education butRead MoreSociology Essay20437 Words   |  82 PagesAS Sociology Sociology Nik Jorgensen Text  © Nelson Thornes Distance Learning 2010 Illustrations  © Nelson Thornes Distance Learning 2010 All rights reserved. The copyright holders authorise ONLY users of NTDL AS Sociology to make photocopies for their own or their students’ immediate use within the teaching context. No other rights are granted without permission in writing from the publisher or under licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited, of Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby StreetRead MoreA Study On Child Poverty Essay2778 Words   |  12 PagesBN508000 Sociology for Nurses Course Coordinator: Jude Roddick Essay topic: Child poverty in New Zealand â€Å"High rates of child poverty are a cause for concern, as low family income has been associated with a range of negative health, education, justice, labour market and social outcomes. Negative health outcomes include low birth weight, infant mortality, poorer mental health and cognitive development, and hospital admissions from a variety of causes† (Craig, Reddington, Wicken, Oben Simpson,Read MoreOld Age Homes: A Lucrative Business Opportunity10484 Words   |  42 Pagescommutation to the different places, as these facilities would be available in disparate, scattered places. For eg, travel a distance to meet your friends, travel to the doctor - if the person is not suffering from a serious ailment, travel to the club, and so on. It is a fast growing idea with a huge market. Although poor old destitutes do need shelter and should have separate, and very differently managed, old age homes for them at no or low cost, an old age home should no more be looked at asRead MoreThe Censorship of Art Essay example14698 Words   |  59 PagesAlso around the same time, Pam Howar, wife of a wealthy construction executive, noticed the lyrical contents of the songs she was dancing to during her aerobics classes, and discovered that her daughter was listening to the same kind of music over breakfast. In April of 1985 the concerned parents, together with Sally Nevius, wife of former Washington D.C. council chairman John Nevius, and Ethelynn Stuckley, wife of former Congressman Williamson Stuckley, joined forces: on May 13, 1985, they formed theRead MorePropaganda by Edward L Bernays34079 Words   |  137 PagesAmerican Antiquarian Society; League for American Citizenship; American Federation of Labor; Amorc (Rosicrucian Ord er); Andiron Club; American-Irish Historical Association; Anti-Cigarette League; Anti-Profanity League; Archeological Association of America; National Archery Association; Arion Singing Society; American Astronomical Association; Ayrshire Breeders Association; Aztec Club of 1847. There are many more under the A section of this very limited list. The American Newspaper Annual and Directory

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Rise of Earthquakes in Oklahoma Essay - 1284 Words

The Rise of Earthquakes in Oklahoma With earthquakes on the rise, we must figure out the cause of them and determine a solution to help limit or even prevent them from occurring. Since early 2009, earthquakes have been sweeping across the state of Oklahoma, causing many people to worry about their own well-being. Many scientists speculate the source of the earthquakes might be a result of Hydraulic Fracturing deep down in Earths’ crust. Hydraulic fracturing is a process in which oil and natural gas companies pump up to millions of gallons of wastewater, sand, and chemicals down drilled holes in order to release pockets of shale within the earth. This use of technology is in question of the potential cause or inducement of earthquakes in†¦show more content†¦Areas that have become a prime source for these quakes are being heavily surveyed for signs of structural damage along with potential changes and repairs by home inspectors. Seismologists have recorded that most Ok lahoma earthquakes generally strike within the 2.5 – 3.0 magnitude on average. While some have been recorded to spike up much higher which could potentially cause structural damage to homes. Earthquakes of large magnitude have the potential to create large-scale destruction to homes, which do not meet building code requirements for earthquakes of this magnitude. â€Å"It has implications for calculated risks of seismic hazard, and it will have an economic impact on the state if people have to start building to more stringent design standards (Brus).† Many scientists from around the country believe there may be links to the earthquakes for hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking. Hydraulic fracturing is a process in which millions of gallons of wastewater are pumped deep down in the earths crust to break down rock releasing pockets of shale. This process is very important to the oil industry. It is our leading method of obtaining oil and natural gas from the earth. America has a very poor image when it comes to the oil industry. This process allows us to obtain and become more sufficient in our pursuit for oil and natural gas. The U.S Geological Survey and OGS have been conductingShow MoreRelatedOklahoma Is An Oil Rich State And The Most Important Economic Activities Of The Region1572 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Oklahoma has been on the spotlight for the last few years owing to the increase in earthquakes. Particularly, 2014 served a wake-up call for stakeholders such as government, researchers and oil and gas industry members as a result of a sharp rise in earthquakes reported in the area. The year saw Oklahoma receiving more earthquakes than compared to California, a region that is more culpable to the earthquakes scene. In adition, 2014 also marked the largest earthquake reported in the historyRead MoreFracking, By Susan L. Brantley And Anna Meyendorff1389 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"New pathways can be used in the rock layer. Due to new pathways being created, more gas can be released,† (Marshall, 2015). Drillers can create mini-explosions in the wells to boost flow. How do mini-explosions not increase the probabilities of earthquakes? The horizontal drilling can allow millions of gallons of high-pressure water into the fractures of shale. Chemicals can be added to the high-pressu re water for the purpose of dissolving minerals as well as inserting sand to open fractures madeRead MoreFracking And Its Wastewater Disposal1489 Words   |  6 Pagescause most of earthquakes but also contains many toxic chemicals which bring other environmental issues including water poisoning, air pollution, and soil pollution. As my values are about human safety and environment protection, I am totally against the use of Fracking in extracting oil and from my point of view, Fracking is an indirectly fatal and environmentally destructive. First and foremost, the wastewater used in Fracking is the primary cause of recent earthquakes in Oklahoma. As soon as aRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing And Fracking : A Controversial Topic Across The Globe1489 Words   |  6 Pagesregistered 2.7 earthquake on a 4.0 scale was reported in Youngstown. Seismic activity is blamed on the newly created or returning faults deep within the earth’s crust. The nature of fracking is to create cracks and crevices in the earth to extract natural gases and oils through them. By increasing the number of cracks in the earth, it can cause the movement of rock under the surface. The number of earthquakes is on the rise in places like Oklahoma; where less the previous average of earthquakes have jumpedRead MoreThe Drilling Sites Will Be Located Near The Ogallala Aquifer1410 Words   |  6 Pagesconcerns that fracking is leading to earth quakes. Oklahoma specifically has seen a rise in the number of earth quakes since the oil drilling started to b oom. Tim McDonnell, a reporter covering the fracking industry, wrote a report stating that the quakes are directly linked to the drilling. The cause is not the initial drilling itself, but the follow up step where the waste water is blasted back into the ground into the well disposals. Oklahoma has not only had to face ground level damage, but damageRead MoreThe Science Of Earthquakes And The Geology Of The State2411 Words   |  10 Pages The One and Only Oklahoma Robert Adams GEO 101 – Earth Science Colorado State University – Global Campus Heather Hill November 22, 2014 â€Æ' The One and Only Oklahoma Oklahoma is home to some of the most interesting geological and meteorological phenomenon in the world. From savage tornados that have notoriously ripped through small towns destroying everything in their path, to devastating earthquakes that can be felt miles away - Oklahoma is very unique in its geological make up and is alsoRead MoreThe Dictionary States That Fracking Is A Method Used For1173 Words   |  5 Pageswith chemicals and pumped into the ground. Fracking was exempted from the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act and the chemicals used to frack are not tested frequently in our water (Lampe 34). Bordering on 20 to 40 percent of the water used to frack rises back up to the surface and is stored on site (Lampe 34). An immense problem with that is that these water tanks can leak and push this water back into our rivers, ponds, and aquifers (Lampe 34). The liquid used to frack includes salt, arsenic, hydrocarbonsRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing Of Natural Gas1342 Words   |  6 Pagesthe small pockets of natural gas trapped within these surface cracks. In recent years, throughout the Midwest, hydraulic fracturing has been linked to the contamination of many farmers and homeowner’s wells. There have been reports of triggered earthquakes as a result of hydraulic fracturing. These cases have all come to find that hydraulic fracturing techniques played a role in these incidents; energy companies have failed to acknowledge or compensate individuals affected. Hydraulic fracturing isRead MoreFracking : The Gas Boom1352 Words   |  6 Pagesaffects over 15.3 million Americans who live within a mile of wells that have been fracked since 2000 (Russel Gold, 2014). It’s very clear that there are many concerns when it comes to fracking, including how our health is affected by fracking, earthquakes, and the climate effects from methane gas and the huge amount of water needed for fracking. Hydraulic fracturing may have its benefits, but it can be very ha rmful to our health and to our environment. Of course, there are many people whoRead MoreWe Want Clean Water1550 Words   |  7 Pagesincreased accessibility, greater efficiency and it costs less. As this process increases energy production, the energy becomes cheaper to access, which lowers manufacturing costs and in the end the profits rise for companies (CNN,Richard Quest). Environmentalists argue that fracking can cause earthquakes, contaminates water, pollutes the air and is a problem for Americans using freshwater. In the last ten years of fracking, America’s economy has been progressive with the oil and gas industry contributing

Hrs Contribution To Broad Organisational Objectives Commerce Essay Free Essays

In Today ‘s fast paced planetary concern economic system, Organisations today have major duties to map, facilitate, array and promote corporate societal duty ( CSR ) . Administrations like this demand rethinking in their concern ends, aims and motivations, concentrating chiefly on merely doing net income to the corporate citizenship. Human rights, labor patterns, health care to environment, all these have bit by bit been impacted by the CSR which has easy began to be seen in the communities worldwide. We will write a custom essay sample on Hrs Contribution To Broad Organisational Objectives Commerce Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now State and worldwide, HR plays a really critical function such as taking and educating their houses with respects to the importance of CSR while at the same time strategically implementing HR direction patterns which so supports the Company on the whole and the CSR ends. The purpose of the study is to foreground and emphasize on the impact of the HR direction within The Humphrey Group. The CSR has developed such corporate policies which cover a scope of issues, including the CSR, but despite this no 1 makes certain they are adhered to, appraisal of staff consciousness and measuring their impact. This maybe the board ‘s present mission, aims and moralss do non reflect the values of staff ‘s chance of clients. This is HR ‘s best placed to use staff in such issues. These values have an consequence in the staffing issues such as enlisting, preparation assessments and other procedures such procurance. HR plays a critical function in guaranting that all this happens. Developing the procedure where concern aims are assessed and values are realigned to fit staff ‘s outlooks. One of the ways that HR section can assist lend to The Humphrey Group ‘s broader aim of CSR is that they can measure all the staffs ‘ public presentation and carefully see how much bonus an employee should acquire depending on the public presentation. Besides this has to be known to the full employee working within the administration, so that they know how much they will acquire depending on their patterned advance. This will be just to all the members of staff within the administration and will diminish any unfairness and fillip dirts. In the undermentioned article â€Å" Yes directors should be paid like administrative officials Frey Bruno.S, Osterloh, Margit states that corporate dirts, reflected in inordinate direction compensation and deceitful histories, cause great harm. Agency theory ‘s insisting to associate the compensation of directors and managers every bit closely as possible to steadfast public presentation is a major ground for these dirts. They can non be overcome by bettering variable wage for public presentation as selfish extrinsic motive is reinforced. Based on the common pool attack to the house, establishments are proposed, functioning to raise per se motivated corporate virtuousness. More importance is to be attributed to fixed wage and beef uping the legitimacy of governments by procedural equity, relational contracts, and organisational citizenship behavior. † The findings of this article support that employees should be paid reasonably and besides appraisals should be conducted for this practise to take topographic point. This will therefore stop populace examination. Excessive direction and the bureau theory both become a ground for these dirts. In some scenarios the board of The Humphrey Group may perchance hold integrated policies that cover a scope of issues including corporate societal duty, but no-one barely sticks to it to look into the staff consciousness, or analyze their impact. The ground for this may be that the board of The Humphrey Group ‘s current aim and values do n’t reflect the values of staff. Human Resource section is placed to guarantee that they let all staff know of these issues. Human Resource section acts an of import function to guarantee that The Humphrey Group aims are assessed and values re-aligned to fit them with staff outlooks. Some of the ways that this can be done is to reexamine The Humphrey Group policy and processs to guarantee values are consistent and besides another manner that this can be done is to confer with and affect staff more in the running of the concern. â€Å" Turban, Daniel B and Greening, Daniel W province in their article corporate societal public presentation and administration attraction to prospective employees provinces that Pulling on propositions from societal individuality theory and signalling theory, we hypothesized that houses ‘ corporate societal public presentation ( CSP ) is related positively to their reputes and to their attraction as employers. Result indicate that independent evaluations of CSP are related to houses ‘ reputes and attraction as employers, proposing that a house ‘s CSP may supply a competitory advantage in pulling appliers. Such consequences add to the turning literature proposing that CSP may supply houses with competitory advantages. † The hypothesis survey of the corporate societal public presentation ( CSP ) demonstrates that occupation seeking population has increased as it yields in enticing human resources depending on the grade of occupation picks possessed by an person. The CSP is associated to employer magnetic attraction for persons seeking occupation with elevated degrees of employment picks but non allied for the public with low degrees meaning plus point to certain companies with surging degrees of CSP to pull the most qualified employees. As stated in Richard W. Beatty, Jeffrey R. Ewing and Charles G.Tharp article of HR function in corporate administration: present and position. This article states that â€Å" We have explored this issue from the position of the HR map through a study of the senior HR professionals who attended the Human Resources Forum. The study was augmented with focal point groups. Our intent was to understand current patterns, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to legal criterions and professional and ethical codifications. We besides explored the functions of the CEO, HR leading, and the HR map in minimising ethical breaches that have diminished investor and public trust. We hope to cast visible radiation on the duties, actions, and hazards of the HR map and its leading now and in the hereafter. † In decision this study concludes that has thrown visible radiation on how the HR section maps and grips Humphrey Group. It holds up the company by it being its anchor which in return has a heavy impact on the correct and procedural operation of Humphrey group. In add-on, the HR plays a critical function in keeping healthy staff client relationship along with instilling a well defined bond of public trust. The HR Department besides holds a steadfast aim of integrating societal duties and realining direction ends and compensation moralss of the company. How to cite Hrs Contribution To Broad Organisational Objectives Commerce Essay, Essay examples